عنوان مقاله [English]
Maritain, a twentieth century Neo-Thomist philosopher, who criticizes modern philosophy and believes in returning to Thomas's views on all philosophical subjects, introduces the pillars of human knowledge as object (the mental form), external thing, and subject (the knower). He criticizes the views of some modern philosophers on knowledge, arguing that the knowledge of the self cannot be the basis for other human sciences, as Descartes puts it, or, as some existentialists believe, it is the main subject of philosophy. Maritain said this knowledge which is called "subjectivity", is later than other sciences due to its understanding as to the subject of other objects, and it is not basically through the object; In the sense that man, after knowing other things, realizes that he is the subject of all objects, and therefore has a different position and application from other human knowledge. This knowledge is equivalent to the knowledge of the self in Avicenna’s views, and accordingly one can create a dialogue between him and Maritain about "knowing itself" in order to reveal its points, as well as to show that the Avicennian views are up-to-date. On the other hand, Maritain regards the place and application of this knowledge as a basis for esoteric contemplation and mystical knowledge, in which he goes beyond the views of Thomas and enters the mystical tradition. In this position, Maritain seems to be strongly influenced by Avicenna’s mystical views, in addition to the mystical Christian tradition.